The profile for Partner-institution:
Malmö Högskola, IMER
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IMER (International Migration and Ethnic Relations) is one of six academic schools at Malmö University. One of the reasons why the University of Malmö was established was to address the particular circumstances, possibilities, and needs found in the Skåne region and in the city of Malmö and its environments. With approximately 50% plus, of all persons living in the city of Malmö being of immigrant background, the University has as one of its aims to increase the representation of immigrant students amongst it´s programs of education. Consequently, IMER has become a special profile area, within Malmö University. As a profile area, IMER educational and research concerns should form an element in each of the five other schools of the University.
The school has three main components: 1) Courses dealing with the major theoretical and practical issues of migration, ethnic relations, human rights, and peace and conflict studies, 2) Courses in Communication in English and Communication in Swedish 3) Bridging courses for non-Swedish students wishing to begin studying within the Swedish university system or to apply their educational experience from abroad.
The school of IMER is concerned with the study of two phenomena, international migration and ethnic relations, and how these relate to one another. Migration, which includes within its pervue the processes of immigration, emigration, and return migration, has consequences for both the individual and society. It is important to understand the connection between the individual and societal aspects of migration. The questions raised by considering the issues of migration are not only of importance to specific areas of society and those persons directly involved in the process, but include all other areas of society as well as the private lives and relationships of those persons in the society. The content of the IMER courses is multidisciplinary and includes four different traditional areas of scientific research; the social sciences, the humanities, law, and theology. Several different perspectives therefore define IMER as a subject of study. IMER is an active field of research, where questions of migration, ethnicity, xenophobia, racism, integration, and intercultural and interfaith interaction dominate the field.
Courses in International Migration and Ethnic Relations
IMER as a subject area includes courses from the A level (1-20 cts) up to and including the D level (41-80 cts) of instruction. Students are therefore able to take up to four semesters of coursework. The courses are generally given as full time day courses, with a selection of courses being given in the evenings as well. The aim of these courses is to contribute to the creation of a functional multicultural society by providing courses which give students the knowledge and conceptual understanding of the central issues of IMER as a multidisciplinary field of study. The central focus is given by the study of the very relationship between the two major issues in the title of the program; international migration and the relationship this describes with ethnic relations. The educational program is in this sense both global, local, historical, and concerned with the current development of migration issues in society. The content of the courses can be differentiated into several themes, amongst these are: migration and globalization, immigration, emigration, and return migration, diaspora, economics, the labor market and immigration, the meeting of cultures and religions, human rights and international law, nationalism, the state, citizenship, ethnicity and identity, racism, xenophobia, the city and immigration, gender and the family, language, integration, and the media and immigrant politics.
Courses in Human Rights
Courses in Human Rights are offered from the A level (1-20 cts), up to and including the D level (41-80 cts) of instruction. The aim of these courses is to give students a basic knowledge of the subject, followed by continuing education in the field, and finally upon completion of the program of 80 points a comprehensive under- standing of the issues of concern in the field of Human Rights. Course instruction includes the study of theoretical and normative perspectives in combination with the actual experience and praxis of human rights in society, for example, that of the interpretation and application of human rights in Sweden. Human rights and interna- tional assistance law are the main themes of the course. To explore and understand how human rights are regulated, defined, and applied in different societies it is necessary to have knowledge of the historical, political, religious, and philosophical foundations of both democracy and human rights. Concepts such as the sources of common law, legal doctrine, actors and subject are addressed. The rights of citizenship: political, economic, social, and cultural rights and their implementation form a central part of the course. The courses encompass four different areas of scientific investigation; law, the humanities, the social sciences, and theology. The perspective is both national, regional, and global in orientation, and includes both historical perspectives and current approaches to the subject of human rights.
The courses are aimed at students who have a university or high school education and are interested in questions concerning human rights, and persons who work or have worked (professionally or on a voluntary basis) in organizations that address human rights issues and their application.
Peace and Conflict Studies
Peace and Conflict Studies (PACS) at the School of IMER is a multidisciplinary series of courses for those who have a special interest in contemporary patterns of armed conflict and organised violence, the historical emergence of these patterns and new forms of conflict mitigation, resolution and prevention. PACS is now taught in more than 100 universities world-wide. It emerged as a distinct field of academic study in the period immediately after the Second World War. For decades one of its major concerns was the Cold War situation. The end of the Cold War did not lead to peace, as many had hoped. Instead, new patterns of conflict have emerged, once again intensifying research efforts in the field of PACS to develop appropriate analytical perspectives and models. The goal of such research is to arrive at a better understanding of how to achieve peaceful and equitable forms of social coexistence. At Malmö University, PACS runs over three semesters, offering 60 credits in all within the Swedish system of higher education. The first semester is an introduction to grassroots perspectives on organised violence, to the field of international relations, including late theoretical developments such as constructivism, and to global conflict scenarios. The second semester involves deeper engagement with a number of recent and on-going armed conflicts around the world. With the help of case studies, students acquire skills in the analysis and application of theoretical perspectives to actual conflicts. The third semester consists of two major topics: international law and conflict resolution. Skills in the interpretation and application of key legal texts and how to conduct negotiations are part of what is offered at this level. The credits obtained in PACS at Malmö University may be used when applying to graduate programmes in PACS at other Swedish universities. Furthermore, there is opportunity for exchanges both at the student and research levels with sister programmes in different parts of the world.
Form of Instruction
The major part of classroom instruction in the School of IMER is problem-based and involves independent study in groups and on an individual basis with the assistance of the teacher. Heavy emphasis is placed on the teaching of analytical skills and the development of different methodological and theoretical perspectives. All the courses given at IMER contain at least one major project assignment. This is so that students may apply the knowledge they have acquired in the lectures and study sessions. The project assignment is also a way to develop the students? abilities to analyze, critique, and better understand central problems and issues in the study field. In doing so the students gain the opportunity to test, and thereby learn how to apply, the different methods and analytical tools available in the subject. The students choose the subject for their project assignment from a variety of predetermined topics, and on that basis are then assigned a project advisor from among the teaching staff. The project is then subject to examination in a presentation seminar in which the students conduct both an oral presentation and defence and opposition of a project.
A central component in the training of students? ability to think critically and independently both about society around them and in studying the assigned literature in the course is the individual take-home examination. The take-home examinations and the project assignments form the two main components of coursework. In addition to the use of these forms of independent research and study in the courses, students also have obligatory lectures and assignments of a more traditional nature.
Communication in English
Language and literature are essential modes of expression of culture and self. The aim of these courses is to develop an awareness of the role of language and literature in intercultural understanding and communication. Communication in English is offered as an independent course of study but can be followed within the program "Language - Migration - Globalization". At the core of the course is the study of English as a means of international and cross-cultural communication, with an emphasis on questions such as ethnicity, gender class and identity. The use of English at different levels of formality is also an important perspective. English is both the object of study and the medium of study, which means that proficiency improves through a combination of practical exercise in speech and writing, and analytical training in the fields of language and literature. Communication in courses are offered from the A level (1-20 cts), up to and including the D level (41-80 cts) of instruction.
A combination of resources are available, including lectures, lessons, tutorials, self-study and computer assisted communication, language learning and information.
Communication in Swedish
Within the labor market and in society there is a demand for language skills, both oral and written. Communication in Swedish means knowledge and use of Swedish for correct communication both in private and public at different levels of formality and in all types of media. The aim of the course is to develop awareness of the role of language so that the students can use, understand and analyze Swedish language and literature and communication. The Communication in Swedish courses are offered from the A level (1-20 cts), up to and including the D level (41-80 cts) of instruction.
A combination of resources are available, including lectures, lessons, tutorials and self-study.
The Introduction Course
One of the educational goals for Malmö University is to increase the numbers of students with an immigrant background within higher education. The possibility of succeeding with this ambition and that students are able to complete their education is dependent on their knowledge of the Swedish language. One of the preconditions for attaining this goal of increased immigrant student enrollment is to provide advanced Swedish language training prior to regular university course enrollment, which is the reason for the inclusion of a course program in Swedish language education in the course program at IMER.
The Introduction course is a one year program of elective courses designed to provide intensive training in Swedish, English, and social science subjects for immigrant and refugee students that have completed at least a high school education abroad. Both the language courses and the social science subjects are designed for students that wish to continue on into regular university studies in Sweden. The students develop their language comprehension both through oral and written training. They improve their Swedish vocabulary, speech habits and pronounciation, and learn to read large volumes of text as well as develop their study techniques and familiarize themselves with the classroom and pedagogical techniques common in the universities and university-colleges in Sweden. Special attention is given in the course toward ensuring that students develop good writing skills.
IMER as a Multidisciplinary Field of Research
In summary, the subject of International Migration and Ethnic Relations can be said to focus on "emigration, immigration and return, on the dynamics of international migration, on migration politics, on integration processes and on ethnic relations over a period of one or several generations as the basis for, or as a consequence of, migration, and on immigrated as well as original minorities".
For this "definition" and also for a broader report on and discussion of IMER as a subject, see the overview of research and of this field of knowledge by Professor Tomas Hammar, entitled Om IMER under 30 år. En översikt av svensk forskning om internationell migration och etniska relationer, published by The Swedish Council for Social Research, Stockholm 1994. In his overview, Tomas Hammar points out that the term 'IMER' is international in character, even though it is not always exactly the same terminology that is used. The words 'migration' and 'ethnicity' are usually included in the term, although with some variation. Besides the report by Tomas Hammar, there is in the Swedish context written material as a basis for the establishment of studies at 'Theme Ethnicity' at the University of Linköping, Campus Norrköping, where two professorial chairs have been established. We would of course also like to refer to our own descriptions of the subject that appear in our curriculum, syllabi, reports, catalogues, brochures etc.
Programme and Guidelines for IMER-Research
It is important already at an early stage of the building up of research in a new field such as IMER to consider both ongoing and planned research in a context, and in a time perspective, as a step towards the realisation of creative and coherent high quality research. If that is not done, there is an immediate risk of ending up in an atomised research environment, in which teachers/researchers have very little in common, even though this disparity may be hidden under popular concepts, like "pluralism" or "research ". Ultimately, this will have a negative effect on both teaching at the basic level and on ongoing research, and therefore IMER would prefer to avoid that kind of situation.
What can we do in order to avoid that?
First, we can strongly stimulate and invest in research that develops basic education and meets its needs. That means, in reverse, that not only a qualitative demand should be made on IMER-research, but also that its relevance for the educational work should be tested.
Second, it may be wise, at least during an initial stage, to invest in a maximum of four or five research profiles, which should ideally be mutually inter-linked. The research profiles should be multidisciplinary arranged in the same way as the basic education of IMER.
Third, these research profiles ought to take the form of a broad programme of research, in which researchers/teachers with different scientific specialities may participate during shorter and longer periods and with varying degrees of input.
Fourth, individual external research projects should be attached (loosely or more firmly) to these research profiles already at the stage of application.
Fifth, the goal should be that all teachers at IMER spend at the most 75 percent of their time on teaching and undertake research for at least 25 percent or, the other way round. Seen in a perspective over several years, the ideal could be 50 percent teaching and 50 percent research. The presence of integrated programmes of research arranged as research profiles may considerably facilitate the achievement of such a goal.
Sixth, the gift from the City of Malmö to Malmö University and to IMER of a post as visiting professor, a research assistant and as a post-graduate scholarship focused and arranged in such a way that these three posts enforce and develop the research profiles of IMER. The choice of holders of the post as visiting professor should be planned over at least a three-year-period, and preferably variation between the different research profiles should be sought. Besides research profile and high demands on research quality, sex, ethnic and cultural background and geographical origin should also be taken into account when an appointment is made.
Seventh, it is desirable to have a time perspective of three to five years for both the research programme and the post as visiting professor in order to follow research developments, and to provide an overview of the same. The time limits may function as control stations of the research with regard to focus, content, quality and results.
Eighth, the starting point is the aim that IMER within the next few years should have developed its own research training parallel to the building up of the research profiles and the post as visiting professor. The task of IMER will be to make sure that the latter functions as a catalyst for development of IMER's own research training.
Finally, the appropriate size of IMER as an area of education and research at Malmö University is a good pre-condition for the prospect of realising the eighth goal defined above.
Teaching and Research Competence, Teachers and Scholars
In the IMER Faculty, there are currently (February 2001) 43 members of staff, of whom one is a professor, one guest professor, six lecturers employed until further notice of which two are readers, fifteen temporarily employed lecturers, six assistant masters, eight postgraduate students, three administrators and three temporarily employed staff of a research project. Of the 30 teachers, 19 hold a doctoral degree. The entire staff group is made up of 22 men and 21 women, and among the teaching staff there are 18 men and 12 women.
Considering the teaching and research competence of the staff at IMER a little closer, the following can be said. As mentioned above, there is a professor who is also the Dean. In addition, there is also a guest professor. Six lecturers employed until further notice, of which two are readers. There are fifteen temporarily employed lecturers, eleven of whom hold doctoral degrees. There are eight postgraduate students working on their doctoral research employed on five-year appointments. Six master's assistants, employed until further notice, teach on the Introductory course in Swedish and English with the Humanities. Three scholars, one of whom hold a reader degree, are employed on special research projects. Finally, there are three administrators in paid employment. Almost all members of the teaching staff, permanently as well as temporarily employed at IMER, hold doctoral degrees on different specialities and lead research projects of their own, which means that they are all very actively engaged in research. Besides this, they also have well documented educational experience and, in particular, experience of teaching in the field of IMER.
The following scientific fields are represented among the teachers (permanently and temporarily) at IMER: history, business/ economics, economic history, sociology, social psychology, social anthropology, political science, ethnology, religious science (sub- divided into religious sociology and religious history), ethics and law (human rights and international law), linguistics and literature, both Swedish and English.
It is considered very likely, that besides the reader- and professorial competence that is already available, some of the teaching staff currently undertaking research will within the next few years reach the competence required to supervise research students. Since the early spring of 1999, the Dean of IMER is the holder of a professorship in sociology stationed at IMER, Malmö University. The holders of the posts as lecturer on ethnology and religious sociology at IMER hold readerships in the subjects. The possible award of readership competence to the lecturer in history and social anthropology is also currently under investigation.
In order for the students at the 41-60 and 41-80 points levels to become familiar with current research in the all subject areas of IMER, and thus to have the opportunity to encounter external influences of knowledge, several professors and readers are invited as guest lecturers on the different courses.
Research and Research Studies at IMER
IMER is a clearly defined subject of research and research education. Since more than two decades, there is a professorial chair in immigration studies at CEIFO (Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations). As from 1st January 1999 there are two professors appointed at the new 'Theme Ethnicity' at the University of Linköping, and plans for appointment of a third at a later date. Bearing in mind that the first group of IMER-students who began their studies at Malmö University in the autumn of 1997 had finished their IMER-studies at the 41-80 point level in the spring of 1999, it was essential to offer some of these the opportunity to undertake post-graduate studies in paid position as from the autumn of 1999. The first groups of students at 80-point level at IMER numbered 25 students and an equal number of students began their studies at that level each semester since then. This implies that there is already a large base of potential applicants for post-graduate studies at IMER and a burning interest for these subjects. As a result, five students were accepted for post-graduate work at 'Theme Ethnicity', University of Linköping and offered paid positions as doctoral students at IMER, Malmö University.
These recently accepted post-graduate students will be the first building-blocks in the investment in post-graduate research education in one of the new fields of training and research studies undertaken at Malmö University, and also within one of its specialities. Competent supervision is in place (see above). Besides what has already been said, the excellent pre-conditions for the establishment of research education as part of IMER that apply as a result of the major support for Malmö University and IMER in the form of a gift of finance for a guest-professor (to be revised every twelfth year), a research assistant and a doctoral student in International Migration and Ethnic Relations by the City of Malmö should also be noted. The first Guest Professor is already in place and one doctoral student has been appointed. The position as research assistant will be filled later this spring. This gift further enforces the ability to provide supervision as well as international influences of outlooks and knowledge.
IMER has already from the beginning in 1997 been focused on research. It was in fact thanks to the externally financed research that the basic courses in IMER with a focus on problems and projects on a multi-disciplinary basis (external money for research made it possible to employ a sufficient number of teachers with various specialities). At the same time research in IMER could be focused on the needs of the basic education. A research assistant, financed by The Swedish Council for Social Research, was also involved in the work at IMER from the beginning. Several of the first temporarily employed lecturers (five positions) brought with them external research-projects.
Research at IMER may at present be said to concentrate on six profiles or focal points. All the research profiles have immediate relevance for the basic training and are mutually inter-linked as part of the realisation of creative and coherent research of the highest quality. This implies that IMER-research is not only subject to qualitative demands, but also examined with regard to its relevance for basic education.
The research Profiles at IMER
The Metropolis and Integration Models, Multiculturalism and Ethnicity The research framework programme "TALES FROM THE CITIES: Making Multiculturalism Work in the New Century" is a way of linking together IMER-research with the already well developed international research programme called "METROPOLIS". This research programme aims to analyse, evaluate and critically to examine the economic, political cultural and social circumstances for migrants in the major cities of Western Europe and North America from a comparative perspective, synchronically and diachronically. The basic intention is to show successful examples of models or policy from various major cities across Western Europe or North America. By analysis of successful examples of integration, it is possible to discover and analyse factors that develop the positive aspects of integration in the metropolis. Usually, the analysis is the opposite, giving evidence of segregation in the metropolis.
Strongly linked to this research profile, a six-year support for the build up of a research milieu at IMER has been granted from The Swedish Council for Social Research, "Platforms and Impediments for Movement and Integration within the Transnational Öresound Region. A Study of Emergent Identities within a Comparative Global Context."
Immigration, Segregation of Housing, Employment and Language Education
By tendering, IMER has been commissioned for the task of evaluating a proposal for exposed housing areas in Malmö (Rosengård and Hyllie). This assignment implies a multidisciplinary following and evaluation of a framework programme of coherent efforts at Rosengård (and Hyllie) over five years (1999 - 2003) designed to break social and employment segregation. The framework programme, which has been worked out by local authority in Malmö, has received a government grant of SEK 110-115 million. A corresponding framework programme and evaluation should be carried out simultaneously in Stockholm and Gothenburg in segregated housing areas with a high percentage of immigrants. Five researchers from IMER participate in the evaluation. This assignment can be seen as an applied research project, and it may provide to IMER-research knowledge and experience of research focused on action on issues concerning immigration, housing segregation, the employment market, education and language. Insights generating knowledge useful for the comparative research programme "TALES FROM THE CITIES" may also be gained, and thus this assignment may also be linked to that project.
Research and research projects on language, education, social competence, immigration, housing and the employment market belong under this research profile. With regard to research about language, there will, as from the autumn of 2000, be a clear connection to the basic education. The IMER-area will then start up courses focusing on language, migration and globalisation of altogether 120/160 points. Courses on Communicative English and Swedish respectively will be part of the programmes and will be combined with courses on International Migration and Ethnic Relations, Human Rights and Globalisation.
It is both valuable and urgent for IMER at Malmö University to take responsibility for the problems and issues that concern migration and ethnicity in the immediate vicinity, i.e. in the Malmö area. We are already involved in a major project concerning the employment market with focus on issues of pluralism, ethnicity and employment undertaken by the Employment Agency called "Refugen" (The Platform) in Malmö. This agency focuses on work with unemployed immigrants and immigrant academics, seeking to find suitable employment for them.
Refugee Politics and Reception of Refugees; Attitudes among the Receiving Majority Population towards Ethnic Minorities ("Strangers"); Racism, Discrimination and Xenophobia; Citizenship, Nationalism, Religion and Culture.
This broad research profile may be applied at local, regional, national or international level. Several teachers/researchers who are currently employed at IMER have previously been involved in the research project on the environment entitled "Migration, Xenophobia and Populism" (supported by SFR between 1992-1998), and preceded by the project entitled "Encounter with Strangers" (between 1989-92), which were both based at the Department of History at Lund University. This research has resulted in major scientific analyses published in books in the series CESIC STUDIES IN INTERNA- TIONAL CONFLICT, Lund University Press. Thus this research profile may be said to have a strong position from the very beginning of IMER at Malmö University.
There are currently three research projects at IMER with this profile plus the research undertaken by the research assistant.
The first is the research project entitled "The Issue of Refugees and Public Opinion in Sweden, 1985-2000", which is a copy of studies previously carried out within the framework of the project called "Migration, Xenophobia and Populism". The project is built on a major survey of eight different boroughs in connection with the General Election in 1998 and concerns attitudes towards the Swedish political system on three fundamental issues: taxes, refugees and democracy. The main purpose of this project, including surveys at the elections in 1991, 1994 and 1998 is to follow changes in popular attitudes and reactions towards the actual politics on immigration and refugees during the period between 1985 till 1998, i.e. during the critical period when issues of politics on refugees and the reception of refugees was central to the public political conversation and agenda in Sweden.
The second is a research project about "Klippan ? a stigmatised community". The project takes as its starting point a murder of an asylum-seeker from the Ivory Coast in September 1995. The murder was carried out by two Neo-Nazists and marked the culmination of years of ethnic tensions at Klippan, a community which following this murder and the presentation in the television-programme 'Striptease' was labelled by the media as a stronghold of racism. The starting point for this investigation, financed from the National Council for Crime Prevention was to penetrate events and conflicts that led to the murder and to analyse what had happened thereafter. What can be learnt from what happened and happens? The investigation takes an interest in both quantity and quality and applies a structural perspective as well as an actor perspective. In order to find answers to issues raised, and also to carry out a deeper analysis of these issues, a series of interviews with both young people and adults in the community is carried out. The plan is to complete the investigation during 1999. Through this project a Community in the province of Scania in Southern Sweden is being investigated with regard to issues of racism and xenophobia.
The third is a research project on immigration and citizenship focused on gender and ethnicity. Taking its starting point in the theoretical debate on globalisation, the project discusses changes to the concept of citizenship and national identity from the perspective of gender and ethnicity.
To this profile a research project dealing with change of religion from a multi scientific perspective also belongs. Studies of Islam in Sweden are closely linked to this project, looking at the issues from the perspectives of gender, identity and ethnicity.
Globalization, Human Rights and Democracy
A fourth research profile currently being developed focus on the issues of human rights and democracy related to issues of globalisation and peace and conflict studies.
Considering that a programme of independent courses on Human Rights, 1-80 points, was started in the autumn of 1999, it seems likely that research in this field will be developed within the framework of IMER over the next few years. A similar programme of independent courses on Peace and Conflict Studies, 1-80 points, will start in the autumn of 2001, and this will contribute to the develop- ment of a research profile in that field. In order to secure the new multi-scientific research on Human Rights and Democracy, a professorial chair ought to be established at IMER, Malmö University within the next research period.
A three-year research project with clear connections with this research profile was begun at IMER on 1st of January 1999: "National Integration Models in Latin America: A Comparative study of Bolivia, Chile and Argentina". From a comparative perspective, this project will provide analysis of the issues and problems concerning how the particular rights of aboriginal people can be reconciled with the equal rights philosophy of multi-culturalism.
Since the summer of 1999 a research project entitled "The United Nations and Regional Arrangements for the Handling of Conflict" is also based at the IMER Faculty. The purpose of this project is to analyse the past experiences and potential future pre-conditions for closer co-operation between the UN and regional organisations in dealing with international conflicts, some of which include ethnic aspects.
Migration and Ethnicity; Social Care and Health Provision
A fifth research profile is being developed as a co-operation project between IMER, Malmö University and ALI (The National Institute for Working Life) for research into issues concerning social care and health provision for immigrants. Under the umbrella of this research profile questions such as: "What use is made of human resources and professional posts in the field of social care for the purpose of creating positive living conditions for immigrants and in particular for older immigrants?" Applying a comparative multidisciplinary IMER- perspective, in which comparisons are made with other models of care found within Sweden and/or in other countries, could be a methodical approach to answering such questions. A project within the framework of this research profile should, for example, focus on following one or several families of foreign origin on their way through the welfare system and analyse the various encounters and their intrinsic mechanisms that thereby develop.
Projects concerning the topic of how to manage and organise diversity in private and public sector include an evaluation of a labour market policy project aiming at increasing the entrepreneurship of immigrant women in the city of Malmö financed by EU-funding and the city of Malmö.
Internationalisation and Research Training
Internationally, IMER is widely known (and recognised) as a multidisciplinary area of research, often organised as several separate research institutes, some of which are highly acclaimed in international circles. IMER as independent basic education is however very unusual. The basic education available in Sweden has been developed under the umbrellas of a number of different disciplines, such as history, economic history, ethnology, anthro- pology, cultural and social geography, political science, sociology, psychology, law and religious science. This implies that the training offered is still by and large marked by the characteristic features of each of these disciplines, and therefore it has not yet been fully developed. An overall approach to the particular issues and problems raised by migration and ethnicity is so far lacking in basic education at universities and university colleges in Sweden.
Besides the current efforts made at Malmö University, Theme Ethnicity was began in the autumn of 1999 at Linköping University, Campus Norrköping. Two professors have so far been appointed at Theme Ethnicity, Norrköping. A multi-cultural education under the umbrella of ethnology and sociology has also been started at the newly founded Södertörn University. IMER at Malmö University is currently developing close co-operation with the programmes at both Norrköping and Södertörn and also with the research pioneer CEIFO (Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations) at the University of Stockholm and with other centres of education based at Umeå, Uppsala, Gothenburg and Växjö. In Denmark a co-operation is being built up with the recently started Academic Center for Migration Studies, in Aalborg, Aarhus and Copenhagen.
We have signed an agreement with Theme Ethnicity, University of Linköping, Campus Norrköping, for students on the IMER 41-80-cts course who wish to continue their studies at post-graduate level in Sweden. Formally, "our" candidates will be accepted and examined at Theme Ethnicity, although supervision and finance will be fully provided by IMER, Malmö University. The 20% teaching duties included in their appointment will also be carried out at IMER, Malmö University. As mentioned above, the first three of "our own" doctoral students were accepted at Theme Ethnicity on 1st July 1999 and two more 1st January 2001. We assume that one or two candidates will be accepted every year at Theme Ethnicity, but we hope, however, that this will only be a short period of transition before we can start post-graduate research training ourselves, so that our first candi- dates may defend their doctoral theses under our own umbrella. As soon as Malmö University receives authorisation as a Research Centre in the Humanities and the Social Sciences, the curriculum for postgraduate research education can be put into effect at IMER.
We intend to recommend our students/doctoral candidates to some of the internationally most well-known institutes of research, incl. in Western Europe the Universities at Warwick and Sussex in England, at Utrecht, in the Netherlands and to Institut für Migrationsforschung und Interkulturelle Studien (IMIS) at Osnabrück in Germany. An agreement with IMIS covering exchange of students and doctoral candidates already exists and joint seminars and workshops have been held at Osnabrück and Malmö. There are several highly recom- mended research institutes in North America, both in the USA and in Canada, where our research students could visit or attend courses for shorter or longer periods. Among them are three in Canada; at Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver, and at least two in the USA, the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, and at the University of Chicago. In Australia we primarily recommend the Research Institute at the University of Wollongong and the University of Sydney and La Trobe University and Victoria University of Technology in Melbourne.
At the official opening of Malmö University on 31st August 1998, a deed of gift was presented to Malmö University and to IMER by the City of Malmö. This deed was a gift of finance for a Visiting Professor in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (to be held for a period of 6 months to a year by each appointee) and also a position as research assistant and a paid doctoral student attached to this professorial chair. The gift of these three positions applies in perpetuity (subject to a revision every twelfth year) and in terms of money SEK 2,5 million annually with indexation. The motivation behind this gift reads as follows: "By financing the Visiting Professor, the City of Malmö wishes to support contacts with qualified international competence in order that these may become an integrated part of IMER's research and provision of education. By adding scientific strength and inspiration to IMER, it is hoped that IMER will in the long term become a significant resource within the national and international research community. The entire field IMER should be covered, including migration and ethnic relations. The holder of the post as Visiting Professor should be an internationally renowned scholar, primarily from a foreign university or research institute, who is able to carry out research within one of the fields of IMER".
Given these positive pre-conditions, we are nevertheless fully aware that we must ultimately ourselves develop the qualities required to receive, as soon as possible, our own postgraduate research education in IMER at Malmö University. We have pointed out above a number of factors indicating that we already have good prospects of success in this enterprise.
Systematic developments of our international contacts in the IMER-field, via the Visiting Guest Professor, the building up of networks and other exchange schemes (for researchers/teachers and students), invitations to other visiting scholars and the holding of research seminars of a high quality ought, taken together, to contribute to the realisation of such a vision.
The research and teaching staff at IMER come from all the four traditional scientific faculties, which at Malmö University form a single faculty. On staff are sociologists, political scientists, historians, ethnologists, theologians, instructors of both Swedish and English. Currently there are 40 persons employed at IMER but this is expected to increase at a pace with the increasing interest in the program on the part of students.
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